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The Measurement and Recording of Alcohol-Related Violence and Disorder

Annotated Bibliography

The following annotated list of journal articles, books and other papers should be seen as additional updates to other bibliographies provided by SIRC and MCM Research in reports such as Drinking and Public Disorder, 1990 (Portman Group) and Social and Cultural Aspects of Drinking, 1996 (Amsterdam Group).

Numbers in curly brackets '{}' indicate the location of offprints and photocopies in the SIRC filing set 'Alcohol, violence and disorder - #4'.

Alcohol Alert. (1996) Drink and drugs fuel increase in violent crime. [Suggests that the strong links between violence and the use of alcohol are confirmed by the data from the 1996 British crime survey.] {16}

Alcohol Alert. (1998) Accident and Emergency. Issue 3. [The document suggests that the mixture of young people and alcohol is putting a huge strain on the NHS and urges imminent action. Despite noting that 'few departments routinely enquire about and record alcohol consumption' high figures are quoted to illustrate their concerns.] {40}

All Party Parliamentary Beer Group (1999) Licensing law reform panel report. [The report of the All-Parliamentary Beer Group on licensing reform. Published in October 1999 has heavily influenced legislative proposals and initiated wide debate.] {39}

Andreasson, S. et al. (2000) Over-serving patrons in licensed premises in Stockholm. Addiction.95(3):359-363. [Research designed to study the frequency of alcohol service to intoxicated patrons in licensed premises. Results showed the actors who were hired to simulate severe intoxication were served in 95% of licensed premises.] {63}

Bailey, D.S. & Taylor, S.P. (1991) Effects of alcohol and aggressive disposition on human physical aggression. Journal of Research in Personality. 25:334-342. [Experimental investigation looking at the effect of alcohol on subjects with varying levels of aggressive dispositions. Found intoxicated subjects gave higher levels of shock than non-intoxicated subjects under low provocation conditions. Also found the highly intoxicated, high and moderate aggressors increased their shock settings more rapidly as a function of the opponent's provocation than highly intoxicated low aggressors.] {106}

Barrett, T.G. & Vaughan Williams, C.H. (1989) Use of a questionnaire to obtain an alcohol history from those attending an inner city accident and emergency department. Archives of Emergency Medicine.6:34-40. [Used a questionnaire designed to take an alcohol history and found many problem drinkers who had not been previously identified by questions on weekly intake or CAGE questions.] {133}

Bennett, T. (1998) Drugs and crime: The results of research on drug testing and interviewing arrestees. Home Office. [Research report that assesses the extent of drug consumption among samples of people arrested by the police in five English locations.] {245}

Bergman, B. (1997) Responsibility for crime and injury when drunk. Addiction. 92(9):1183-1188. [Bergman's paper highlights the connection between alcohol intoxication and responsibility for crime from a multidisciplinary approach. Ethical considerations are discussed, as are the principles of punishing an intoxicated person.] {56}

Bland, N. & Read, T. (2000) Policing anti-social behaviour. Police Research Series, Paper 123, Home Office Reducing Crime Unit. [The report describes research in nine police forces into the policing of anti-social behaviour. The absence of a common definition of anti-social behaviour creates practical difficulties for the police in their efforts to confront it.] {24}

BLRA. Licensed property: Security in design. [BLRA's recommendations for effective licensed property security systems.] {234}

BLRA. (1999) Submission to The department of Health on a strategy to prevent alcohol misuse. [A submission representing the views of named associations representing the alcoholic drinks industry] {27}

BMA. Alcohol and young people. [The British Medical Association's policy addressing the issues surrounding alcohol use and the problems that can arise from its misuse.] {17}

Bond, A. & Lader, M. (1987) The effects of alcohol on behavioural aggression and cardiac and electrodermal activity monitored during an aversive task. Journal of Psychophysiology. 1:229-240. [Investigated the effects of alcohol on aggression and found that alcohol increased behavioural aggression without a concomitant increase in mood.] {146}

Brain, P.F. (1997) Alcohol's effects on physiology and 'aggression': what is the nature of the link? In Feshback, S. & Zarodzka, J. (Ed's) Aggression: biological, developmental, and social perspectives. Plenum Press. New York. [Suggests that the commonly held assumption - that alcohol ingestion causes hostile behaviour and, hence leads to violent crime - is based on a number of over-simplifications.] {224b}

Brickley, M.R. & Shepherd, J.P. (1995) The relationship between alcohol intoxication, injury severity and Glasgow coma score in assault patients. Injury. 26(5):311-314. [Study assessed the effect of alcohol intoxication on injury severity and head injury assessment. Found a highly significant correlation between blood alcohol concentration and Glasgow Coma scores.] {96}

Brooker, C. et al. (1999) The views of nurses to the conduct of a randomised controlled trial of problem drinkers in an accidents and emergency department. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 36:33-39. [The original study that aimed to examine the impact of screening for alcohol problems in a population of A&E attendances was abandoned, attributed to a number of background factors. Instead a series of qualitative interviews were conducted with the nurses. Results found differences between the clinical managers attitude to research compared to those of the nursing team. The initial training programme was also deemed inadequate.] {209}

Bullock, K., Moss, K., Smith, J. (2000) Anticipating the impact of section 17 of The 1998 Crime and Disorder Act. Home Office. [Aimed primarily at local authority members, this briefing note considers the crime and disorder implications of Section 17 of the Crime and Disorder Act.] {19}

Burns, T. (1980) Getting rowdy with the boys. Journal of drug issues. 10:273-287. [The author focuses on an examination of a sequence of drinking situations experienced by one group of young males during the span of a single summer evening. He concludes that among this group drinking alcohol facilitates the transition from 'boy' to 'man' and that this is shaped by cultural norms.] {170}

Burrows, J. et al. (2000) Review of police forces' crime recording practices. Home Office Research Study 204, Home Office. [An investigation into police crime recording practices. It emphasises the importance of accurate data for the purposes of regional comparison and the ability to assess change over time and attempts to shed light on the 'recording shortfall' - the inconsistencies between the BCS and crimes reported to the police.] {243}

Bushman, B.J. (1997) Effects of alcohol on human aggression. Validity of proposed explanations. In Galanter, M. (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism, Vol.13: Alcoholism & Violence. Plenum press, New York. [Tests the validity of three explanations of alcohol-related aggression: physiological disinhibition, expectancy and indirect cause. Only indirect cause was significant. Experimental manipulations that increased aggression had a stronger effect on intoxicated subjects than sober ones.] {164}

Bushman, B.J. & Cooper, H.M. (1990) Effects of alcohol on human aggression: An integrative research review. Psychological Bulletin. 107(3):341-354. [A meta-analysis of 30 experimental studies claiming to show that alcohol causes aggression when alcohol effects are moderated by certain methodological parameters.] {99}

Cabinet Office. (2000) National strategy for neighbourhood renewal. Report of Policy Action Team 8: Anti-social behaviour. [A report focusing on anti-social behaviour in residential areas. There exist few measurements of anti-social behaviour, and data collection is hampered by under-reporting of incidents and non-recording of complaints.] {14}

Cabinet Office. (2001) List of ministerial responsibilities. {4}

Carrigan, T.D. & Hamer, D.W. et al. (2000) Toxicological screening in trauma. EMJ. 17:33-37. [Study looking at the prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use in patients with major trauma. Found a significant amount of drug and alcohol use in this sample.] {241}

Casswell, S. et al. (1993) The importance of amount and location of drinking for the experience of alcohol-related problems. Addiction. 88:1527-1534. [A national survey carried out in New Zealand in 1988 of people's self reported alcohol-related problems. Frequency, location and amounts of drinking were found to predict problems.] {150}

Cheon, J. & Nagoshi, C.T. (1998) Effects of sensation seeking, instruction set, and alcohol/placebo administration on aggressive behaviour. Alcohol. 17(1):81-86. [Findings suggest the alcohol-aggression relationship is significantly moderated by individual differences in aggression proneness and situational cues for aggression.] {224a}

Cherek, D.R. et al. (1984) Low doses of alcohol affect human aggressive responses. Biological Psychiatry. 19(2):263-267. [Employed a new methodology to assess the effects of very low doses of alcohol on human aggression. The various doses of alcohol had no significant effect.] {155}

Cherek, D.R. et al. (1985) Effects of alcohol on human aggressive behaviour. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.46(4):321-328. [Investigated the effect of alcohol on aggression and concludes that responses to aggression-provoking situations can be altered by the consumption of the equivalent of one or two alcoholic drinks.] {122}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1988) Alcohol consumption and casualties: a comparison of two emergency room populations. British Journal of addiction. 83:1299-1307. [Paper comparing alcohol consumption and casualties in probability samples of two diverse emergency room populations. Injuries were found to be positively associated with breathalyser readings, self reported consumption prior to the event and more frequent heavy drinking in both samples.] {109}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1989a) A study of alcohol use and injuries among emergency room patients. In Giesbrecht, N. et al. (Eds) Drinking and casualties: accidents, poisonings and violence in an international perspective. Tavistock/ Routledge, London. [ Study of alcohol use among patients attending and emergency room at San Francisco General Hospital. Results showed alcohol is associated with injuries for which treatment is sought in an emergency room, particularly among males.] {168}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1989b) Breath analysis and self- reports as measures of alcohol related emergency room admissions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 50(2):155-161. [Paper discusses breath-analyser readings and self-reports as measures of alcohol-related admissions to an emergency room. It is suggested that self-reports may be a valid measure of alcohol's contribution to emergency room admission and when used in conjunction with a quantifiable measure would be an appropriate method for determining alcohol use in emergency room cases.] {205}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1989c) Prediction of alcohol-related casualties among emergency room admissions. The International Journal of the Addictions. 24(3):725-737. [Used logistic regression models to determine the predictive value on injury status of different variables related to alcohol. Found several factors could predict injury including a positive breathalyser reading, binge drinking and drinking prior to an event.] {141}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1989d) Prediction of alcohol-related casualties: a comparison of two emergency room populations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 24:195-203. [Comparison of two emergency room samples to gauge the predictive value of alcohol consumption variables. Age, breathalyser reading and feeling drunk at time of event were consistent predictors of injury status in both samples.] {128}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1993a) Alcohol and injuries: a review of international emergency room studies. Addiction. 88:923-937. [Paper reviewing emergency room studies which have focused on the association between alcohol and casualties. Comments on the limitations of ER studies and discusses future directions.] {61}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1993b) Alcohol and violence-related injuries: an emergency room study. Addiction. 88:79-88. [Compared drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems and drinking in the injury event between those admitted to an emergency room with and without injuries resulting form violence. Those with violence related injuries were more likely than those with other injuries to have positive breathalyser readings. Suggests the need for research to test whether a brief intervention at time of ER visit may effect a reduction in alcohol related violence.] {52}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1993c) Alcohol consumption among emergency room patients: comparison of county/community hospitals and an HMO. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 54:432-440. [Used data from two different emergency room samples to examine the association between drinking patterns and injury. In both samples injured were more likely to have positive breathalyser readings.] {127}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1994) Alcohol and injuries resulting from Violence: a review of emergency room studies. Addiction.89:157-165. [Reviews emergency room studies which have found links between alcohol and injuries. Those with violence related injuries were more likely to be admitted with a positive blood alcohol concentration, to report drinking before the event, and to report more frequent heavy drinking than those admitted with injuries from other causes.] {51b}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1995) Analysis of cut points for screening instruments for alcohol problems in the emergency room. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 56:695-700. [Evaluation of several different alcohol screening instruments. Concluded that standard screening instruments do not perform equally well across ethnic and gender subgroups.] {228}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1997a) Alcohol and violence-related injuries in the emergency room. In Galanter, M. (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism, Vol.13:Alcoholism & Violence. Plenum press, New York. [Reviews data on estimated blood alcohol concentration, self report and drinking patterns and problems from emergency room studies of alcohol and violence-related injury. Results show those with violence-related injuries were more likely to have a positive BAC. Limitations to those studies are discussed.] {163}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1997b) Brief screening alcohol instruments for alcoholism. Alcohol Health & Research World. 4:348-351. [Reviews brief screening instruments and their effectiveness in identifying problem drinkers in primary care settings. Concludes that those such as CAGE and BMAST can be useful tools in identifying problem drinking patterns. Stresses how they vary in their performance among different population subgroups. The specificity and sensitivity of individual instruments are discussed.] {211}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1999a) Gender, injury status and acculturation differences in performance of screening instruments for alcohol problems among US Hispanic emergency department patients. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 53:147-157. [Sensitivity and specificity of several screening instruments including CAGE & MAST were evaluated against ICD-10 & DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence in a sample of Hispanic emergency room department patients. Instruments were not as sensitive for females as for males. Acculturation was positively associated with the likelihood of being a current drinker and of these with alcohol dependence.] {210}

Cherpitel, C.J. (1999b) Screening for alcohol problems in the U.S. general population: A comparison of the CAGE and TWEAK by gender, ethnicity, and services utilization. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 60(5): 705-711.[Comparison of two screening instruments for alcohol problems. While performance of screening instruments varies across demographic subgroups in the general population, they also perform equally well for identifying problem drinkers in general populations as in clinical populations.] {229}

Cherpitel, C.J. (2000) A brief screening instrument for problem drinking in the Emergency Room: The RAPS4. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 63(3):447-449. [Evaluation of the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen. Concluded that due to its high performance across demographic subgroups it is a useful instrument for screening for alcohol use disorders.] {227}

Cherpitel, C.J. et al. (1993) Prediction of alcohol-related casualties in the emergency room: a U.S.-Spain comparison. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.54:308-314. [Comparison of alcohol consumption variables predictive of casualties in emergency room samples from Span and the US. Found quantity and frequency of drinking, time and place of injury and feeling drunk were predictive of casualties in US but not in Spain.] {126}

Cherpitel, C.J. et al. (1998) Male drinking and violence-related injury in the emergency room. Addiction. 93(1):103-112. [Paper presenting epidemiological measures of associations between violence-related injuries, alcohol consumption prior to event and drinking patterns among males attending ER departments. Quantity of usual alcohol consumption was more predictive of violence-related injuries than frequency of drinking.] {58}

Coid, J. (1982) Alcoholism and violence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 9:1-13. [Explores the relationship between alcoholism and violent behaviour from the perspective of five different hypotheses. Finds no direct relationship but also identifies a subgroup whose underlying personality disorder predisposes them to both violent behaviour and alcoholism.] {107}

Collins, J.J. (1982) Alcohol use and criminal behaviour: An empirical, theoretical and methodological overview. In Collins, J. (Ed) Drinking and crime: perspectives on the relationships between alcohol consumption and criminal behaviour. Tavistock, London. [A discussion of the social physiological aspects of alcohol use and criminal behaviour. It also summarises the results of a research project conducted for the National Institute of Justice in their programme to develop multi-disciplinary knowledge about the causes of crime.] {188}

Conigrave, K.M. et al. (1995) Predictive capacity of the AUDIT questionnaire for alcohol-related harm. Addiction. 90:1479-1485. [Examines the capacity for AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) to predict alcohol-related illness and social problems, hospital admission and mortality. Findings suggest AUDIT is a better predictor of social problems than laboratory markers. Concluded that AUDIT can be a valuable tool in screening for harmful alcohol consumption, thus increasing chances of successful intervention.] {195}

Cottingham, R.C. (2001) Proposals for preventing community violence are naive. BMJ. 322:677. Letter.{37}

Cummings, T. & Neale, M. (2000) The concept of aggression and substance dependency. Journal of Substance Use. 4(4):220-226. [This literature review explores operational and conceptual definitions of aggression and substance dependency. Measurement of these concepts is also highlighted. Intervening variables including ethnicity, personality and stress (among others) are also discussed.] {225}

Cyr, M.G. et al. (1988) The effectiveness of routine screening questions in the detection of alcoholism. Journal of the American Medical Association. 259:51-54. [Suggest that existing questions in screening tests such as 'how much do you drink?' yield low sensitivities and are inadequate. It is recommended that physicians increase their index of suspicion for the diagnosis of alcoholism-adopting additional screening questions.] {208}

Deehan, A. (1999) Alcohol and crime: Taking stock. Home Office. [Review that explores the links between alcohol and crime gathering information from the academic, health and policing fields. It identifies recommendations to reduce alcohol-related crime and suggests methods which could reduce the level of policing and other resources needed to deal with these offences.] {8}

Deehan, A. & Saville, E. (2000) Crime and Disorder partnerships: Alcohol related crime and disorder and strategy documents. [Paper describes the extent to which alcohol-related crime was raised as an issue in local audit and strategy documents and gives some recommendations for future work.] {21}

DPAS. Drugs and young offenders: guidance for Drug Action Teams and Youth Offending Teams. {232}

Ekblom, P. & Pease, K. (1995) Evaluating Crime prevention. Crime and justice: A review of research. Vol. 19, pp. 585-662. [The paper describes evaluation problems that are paticularly acute in the crime prevention context and prevent strategies that might best address these.]{254}

Evans, C.M. (1986) Alcohol and violence: Problems relating to methodology, statistics and causation. In Brain, P.F. (Ed) Alcohol and aggression. Croom Helm, London. [Explores the complex statistical link between alcohol ingestion and violent behaviour. Evans suggests that many authors are in danger of over-stating the case when trying to persuade readers that there is a causal link between alcohol violence. 'Alcohol-related violence is rare in relation to the number of man hours devoted to drinking'.] {171}

Farrell, G. & Pease, K. (1993) Once bitten, twice bitten: Repeat victimisation and its implications for crime prevention. Police Research Group, Crime Prevention Unit Series Paper no 46, Home Office. Crown copyright. [Argues that an effective way forward in crime prevention is to target those that have previously been victimised.] {251}

Felson, M. et al. (1997) Reducing pub hopping and related crime. In Homel, R. (Ed) Policing for prevention: Reducing crime, public intoxication and injury. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 7. Criminal Justice Press, New York. [Describes 'The Accord', an initiative set up in Geelong, Australia to combat pub hopping and alcohol-related assaults. It made serving policies universal in order to discourage those who were drunk from moving from place to place. The initiative was followed by a major decline in pub hopping and a reduction in serious assault rates.] {179}

Felson, R.B. et al. (1986) Bar-Room brawls: Aggression and violence in Irish and American bars. In Campbell, A. & Gibbs, J.J.(Eds) Violent Transactions: the limits of personality, Blackwell, Oxford. [The authors suggest that factors other than alcohol may influence conflicts and aggression in bars. In particular they address 'types of clientele' and the types of situation customers are likely to encounter in these venues.] {157}

Fergusson, D.M. & Horwood, L.J. (2000) Alcohol abuse and crime: a fixed-effects regression analysis. Addiction. 95(10):1525-1536. [Examines linkages between patterns of alcohol abuse and crime in a New Zealand birth cohort. Increasing alcohol abuse was significantly associated with increases in rates of violent and property crime. The authors suggest a causal link between alcohol abuse and juvenile offending.] {51a}

Fergusson, D.M. et al. (1996) Alcohol misuse and juvenile offending in adolescence. Addiction. 91(4):483-510. [Looked at the associations between alcohol misuse and juvenile offending during the period from 15 to 16 years old. Found an unexplained association between alcohol misuse and violent offending which they suggest may indicate the presence of a direct cause and effect.] {60}

Flanzer, J.P. (1993) Alcohol and other drugs are key causal agents of violence. In Gelles, R.J. & Loeske, D.R. (Eds) (1993) Current Controversies on Family Violence. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. [ A chapter proposing alcohol to be a primary cause of family violence. Alcohol is considered as an: instigator of violence, disinhibitor of social control & rationalization for violence.] {217}

Flemming, M.F. (1997) Strategies to increase alcohol screening in health care settings. Alcohol Health and Research World. 21(4):340-347. [States that clinicians screen fewer than half their patients for alcohol use disorders. Strategies to increase this figure are discussed, they include group education, performance feedback & financial incentives/penalties.] {212}

Ford, D.E. et al. (1994) Physician knowledge of the CAGE alcohol screening questions and its impact on practice. Alcohol and alcoholism. 29(3):329-336 [A cross-sectional survey to determine physician's ability to list CAGE alcohol screening questions which found that 45% had heard of the CAGE but only 14% could list all four questions. Concludes that knowledge of an alcohol screening test is not sufficient to change physician practice related to care of patients with an alcohol abuse problem.] {114}

Gantner, A. & Taylor, P. (1992) Human physical aggression as a function of alcohol and threat of harm. Aggressive Behaviour. 18:29-36. [In conditions of low provocation, intoxicated subjects behaved more aggressively than nonintoxicated subjects, in both threatening and nonthreatening conditions. However, in conditions of increasing provocation, only intoxicated subjects responded aggressively in the threatening condition.] {198}

Gelles, R.J. (1993) Alcohol and other drugs are associated with violence- they are not its cause. In Gelles, R.J. & Loseke, D.R. (Eds) (1993) Current Controversies in Family Violence. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. [This chapter challenges the notion of alcohol as a causal agent of family violence. Argues against theory of disinhibition and looks at lack of scientific evidence and methodological problems, namely definitions and measurement of both alcohol use and violence.] {218}

Genitello, L.M. et al. (1999) Detection of acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence by trauma centre staff. Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 47(6):1131-1135. [Examines the effectiveness of clinical suspicion as a method of detecting alcohol intoxication in trauma patients. Patients were screened using CAGE & MAST tests and it was found that high proportions of intoxicated patients were not identified by physicians relying on clinical evaluation. It is concluded that the use of clinical judgement to detect acute alcohol intoxication has poor sensitivity and specificity.] {206}

Giancola, P. (2000) Executive Functioning. A Conceptual Framework for Alcohol-Related Aggression. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 8(4):576-597 [It is proposed that Executive Functioning is a causal mechanism underlying alcohol-related aggression, that it is both a mediator and a moderator of intoxicated aggression.] {201}

Gibbs, J. (1986) Alcohol consumption, cognition and context: examining Tavern violence. In Campbell, A & Gibbs, J, J.(Eds) Violent Transactions: the limits of personality, Blackwell, Oxford. [Gibbs highlights the problems associated with using both survey and experimental data when attempting to assess the relationship between alcohol and violence. When considerations of person and situation are taken into account this relationship is far from clear.] {158}

Gofton, L. (1990) On the Town; Drink and the New Lawlessness' Youth and Policy. 29:33-39. [This paper considers disorderly behaviour and alcohol, with reference to the government's (then) new extension of licensing hours. It looks at how drinking patterns/venues/traditions have changed in the North East of England and how this may reflect a change in social values.] {219}

Gordis, E. (1997) Alcohol Alert. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism No.38. [Considers the different models that attempt to explain the complex relationship between alcohol and aggression, e.g alcohol misuse preceding violence and violence preceding alcohol misuse.] {215}

Graham, C.A. et al. (1980) Aggression and barroom environments. Journal of studies on alcohol.41(3):277-292. [Systematic observation of a wide variety of Vancouver barrooms identified a drinking environment highly associated with aggression.] {93}

Graham, C.A. et al. (1998) Restricting extensions to permitted licensing hours does not influence the numbers of alcohol or assault related attendances at an inner city accident and emergency department. Journal of accident and emergency medicine.15:23-25. [Study looking at the effect of restricting extensions to permitted licensing hours on the numbers of alcohol/assault related cases at an A&E department. Found 28.9% of patients had a positive breath test, peaking between 2 and 4am. 67.3% of assault cases were positive. There were no significant changes in pattern of alcohol or assault related attendances following the restrictions in extensions to permitted licensing hours.] {48}

Graham, K. & Homel, R. (1997) Creating safer bars. In Plant, M. et al. (Eds) Alcohol: minimising the harm: what works? Free Association Books, London. [The authors discuss ways in which aggressive behaviour in bars can be prevented, managed and dissipated by changing the bar environment.] {177}

Graham, K. (1980) Theories of intoxicated aggression. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science.12(2):141-158. [Four different theoretical approaches to the alcohol-aggression relationship are reviewed and discussed.] {138}

Graham, K. et al. (1996) Circumstances when drinking leads to aggression: an overview of research findings. Contemporary Drug Problems.23:493-567. [This paper provides an overview of: the role of alcohol in aggressive incidents and violent crimes; studies linking alcohol use and aggression in individuals; experimental studies on the effects of alcohol on aggression; factors associated with aggression in drinking contexts and future directions of research.] {204}

Graham, K. et al. (1997) A framework for applying alcohol-related aggression to naturally occurring aggressive behaviour. Contemporary Drug Problems. 24:625-666. [Theories of alcohol-related aggression are identified and operationalised in order that they can be systematically applied to naturally occurring aggressive behaviour. Explanations are grouped by whether they are based on a) the effects of alcohol b) the drinking or setting c) expectations of individual drinkers.] {202}

Graham, K. et al. (1998) Current directions in research on understanding and preventing intoxicated aggression. Addiction. 93(5):659-676. [Overview of recent research on intoxication and aggression which is seen as arising from an interactional process involving multiple contributing factors.] {59}

Graham, K. et al. (2000) Evaluating theories of alcohol-related aggression using observations of young adults in bars. Addiction. 95(6):847-863. [Study evaluating 36 explanations of alcohol-related aggression in terms of their relevance to naturally occurring incidents of aggression involving alcohol. Concludes that the findings are consistent with a model of alcohol-related aggression that involves multiple contributing factors.] {62}

Greenfield, L. (1998) Alcohol and crime: An analysis of National data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. U.S. Department of Justice. [The report was prepared to provide statistical information as a background for the Assistant Attorney General's 1998 National Symposium on Alcohol Abuse and Crime.] {249}

Greenfield, L.A. et al. (2001) Victim and offender self-reports of alcohol involvement in crime. Alcohol Research and Health. 25(1):20-31. [Explores the notion that alcohol-involved violent crime is decreasing in the US and has been since 1993. This appears to coincide with decreases in other measures of alcohol use and misuse. Discussions include 'characterisations of victimisations involving alcohol', 'alcohol use among convicted offenders' & 'the role of alcohol use in declining rates of violence'.] {213}

Gustafson, R. (1985a) Alcohol and aggression: Pharmacological versus expectancy effects. Psychological Reports. 57:955-966. [Investigates the 'expectancy hypothesis' which has been proposed to explain the relationship between alcohol intoxication and aggressive behaviour. The results did not support the theory.] {103}

Gustafson, R. (1985b) Alcohol-related aggression: A further study of the importance of frustration. Psychological Reports. 57:683-697. [Investigates aggression as an interactive effect of alcohol and frustration. Aggressive cues only had an effect when intoxicated subjects were also frustrated.] {104}

Gustafson, R. (1985c) Frustration as an important determinant of alcohol-related aggression. Psychological Reports. 57:3-14. [Investigates the relationship between alcohol, frustration and aggression. Results showed increased aggression in the intoxicated subjects under frustrative conditions.] {102}

Gustafson, R. (1986a) Alcohol and human physical aggression: the mediating role of frustration. Uppsala, Stockholm. [Doctoral thesis designed to test the theory that alcohol will increase aggression if aggression instigatory features are present. The hypothesis was confirmed in that alcohol increased levels of aggression under frustrative conditions.] {178}

Gustafson, R. (1986b) Alcohol, frustration and aggression: An experiment using the balanced placebo design. Psychological Reports. 59:207-218. [Tested the hypothesis that the pharmacological effects of alcohol would override expectancy effects and that alcohol would increase aggression only in subjects who were frustrated. Only under frustrated conditions did intoxicated subjects increase their aggression regardless of information about a drink's content.] {101}

Gustafson, R. (1986c) Threat as a determinant of alcohol-related aggression. Psychological Reports. 58:287-297. [Investigates the hypothesis that threat will inhibit aggression in intoxicated subjects. Results confirmed the hypothesis.] {100}

Gustafson, R. (1987) Alcohol and human physical aggression: An experiment using a 'backward' balanced placebo design. Journal of social behaviour and personality. 2(1):135-144. [Investigated the role of alcohol on aggression with manipulation of expectancy. Found that those who drunk alcohol were less aggressive than placebo groups and those who had no alcohol were most aggressive. Discussed surprising result in terms of psychological mechanisms as mediators.] {183}

Gustafson, R. (1988) Beer intoxication and physical aggression in males. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.21:237-242. [Investigates the effect of moderate doses of beer on physical aggression. No significant results.] {129}

Gustafson, R. (1989) Alcohol and the validation of experimental aggression paradigms: the Taylor reaction time procedure. Drug and Alcohol dependence. 23:49-54. [Investigated whether intoxicated and sober subjects would calibrate a shock scale to the same objective level and whether pain would be felt in the same way. No differences were found.] {134}

Gustafson, R. (1991) Male Physical aggression as a function of alcohol, frustration and subjective mood. The International Journal of the Addictions. 26(3):255-266. [Tests the hypothesis that alcohol intoxication will increase aggression only if subject is experiencing the state as displeasing. The hypothesis was not supported, although alcohol drinking subjects were more aggressive than those drinking a placebo and aggression increased in both groups when frustrated.] {140}

Gustafson, R. (1992) Alcohol and Aggression: A replication study controlling for potential confounding variables. Aggressive Behaviour. 18:21-28. [Employing the Taylor reaction time paradigm as a measure of aggression it was found that intoxicated subjects were more aggressive both when provoked and when not provoked, which was interpreted as supportive of this procedure.] {197}

Gustafson, R. (1993) What do experimental paradigms tell us about alcohol-related aggressive responding? Journal of studies on alcohol. 54: Supl. 11:20-29. [Review of experimental research into the acute effects of alcohol on aggression. Concludes that alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative conditions aggression increases in as intoxication increases in subjects restricted to an aggressive response.] {110}

Hadida, A. et al. (2001) Comparing two different methods of identifying alcohol related problems in the emergency department: a real chance to intervene? EMJ. 18:112-115. [Compared two methods of identifying alcohol related problems in an A&E department. 28% of patients had an alcohol related attendance on the basis of the CAGE questionnaire. Concluded that different screening methods identify different groups of patients who may respond to different forms of intervention.] {72}

Hester, R. (2000) Crime and Disorder partnerships: Voluntary and community sector involvement. [Briefing note discussing research that aimed to ascertain the nature of voluntary and community sector involvement in crime reduction.] {20}

HMIC. (2000) Calling time on crime. [Comprehensive review of crime reduction activity.] {15}

Hobbs, D. et al. (2000) Receiving shadows: governance and liminality in the night-time economy. British Journal of Sociology 51(4): 701-717. [Paper focusing on the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society.] {12}

Home Office. (2000a) British crime survey. [Details of the eighth British Crime Survey carried out since 1982 asking adults in private households about their experience of victimisation in the previous year.] {31}

Home Office. (2000b) The Crime and disorder act. Guidance on statutory crime and disorder partnerships. Ch. 1. [Strategies for information exchange under the Crime and Disorder Act for crime reduction partnerships .] {7}

Home Office. (2000c) The crime and disorder act. Guidance on statutory crime and disorder partnerships. Ch5. [Strategies for information exchange under the Crime and Disorder Act for crime reduction partnerships.] {10}

Home Office. (2000d) Tackling alcohol related crime, disorder and nuisance. Action plan. [Action plan sets out key objectives for tackling alcohol-related crime, disorder and nuisance. While it recognises that 90% of the UK population enjoys alcohol without any causing any negative effects, for some it is a cause of ill health and social distress.] {3}

Home Office. (2000e) Violent crime. [Government strategy for the reduction of violent crime based on better policing, improving the support for victims, more effective punishment, dealing with the causes of violent crime and adopting partnership approaches.] {13}

Home Office. (2001) Provisions for combating alcohol Related disorder. [Document in a question and answer format providing information on public drinking bans.] {18}

Home Office. Crime Reduction Toolkit. Crown copyright. [A practical 'nuts and bolts' guide to setting up and maintaining a crime reduction partnership. It includes advice on crime auditing and the pulling together of relevant resources as well as a number of 'best practice' examples.] {252}

Homel, R. & Clark, J. (1994) The prediction and prevention of violence in pubs and clubs. In Clarke, R, V.(Ed) Crime Prevention studies. Vol. 3. Criminal Justice Press, New York. [Used quantitative methods to clarify the situational and management factors most predictive of violence in and around licensed premises, with particular reference to the role of intoxication. Found a major predictor of physical violence was staff intervention with intoxicated patrons. Recommends the use of responsible serving practices in all licensed premises.] {182}

Homel, R. et al. (1992) Public drinking and violence: not just an alcohol problem. Journal of drug issues.22(3):679-697. [A study which employed unstructured observation of licensed premises in Sydney to identify factors and management practices that increase the risk of physical violence. Concludes that violence is related to complex interactions between different things, regularly violent venues should have their licenses cancelled and police should enforce laws regulating bouncers.] {175}

Homel, R. et al. (1997) Preventing alcohol-related crime through community action: The Surfers Paradise safety action project. In Homel, R. (Ed) Policing for prevention: Reducing crime, public intoxication and injury. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 7. Criminal Justice Press, New York. [Describes a community based project designed to reduce violence in and around licensed venues and presents its evaluation. Found marked reductions in violence and crime and in practices that promote irresponsible use of alcohol as well as improvements in security practices and handling of patrons.] {180}

Honess, T. et al. (2000) The social contexts of underage drinking. Home Office. [Research project investigating the role of alcohol in the lives of 12-17 year olds. Identified three separate sets of reasons for alcohol use in this group: individually-based, socially-based and peer-influenced.] {235}

Hough, M. and Tilley, N. (1998a) Auditing crime and disorder: Guidance for local partnerships. Crime Detection and Prevention Series, Paper 91, Home Office. [Guidance on how to develop evidence-based crime reduction strategies.] {29}

Hough, M. & Tilley, N. (1998b) Getting the grease to the squeak: Research lessons for crime prevention. Crime Detection and Prevention Series, Paper 85, Home Office. [The paper reviews what is currently known about the structures and practices in forces that facilitate effective crime prevention.] {238}

Huang, B. et al. (2001) Developmental associations between alcohol and interpersonal aggression during adolescence. Journal of research in crime and delinquency. 38(1)64-83. [Used data from the Seattle Social Development Project to explore the association between alcohol use and aggression in adolescence. Results indicated a reciprocal effect of interpersonal aggression and alcohol use in later adolescence.] {77}

Huntley, J.S. Touquet, R. et al. (2001) Improving detection of alcohol misuse in patients presenting to an accident and emergency department. EMJ. 18:99-104. [Assessed the Paddington Alcohol Test in order to improve its deployment. Made the test simpler by including only ten conditions. Concluded that ongoing audit with feedback improves both PAT use and detection of alcohol misuse.] {71}

Ireland, C.S. & Thommeny, J.L. (1993) The crime cocktail: licensed premises, alcohol and street offences. Drug and Alcohol Review. 12:143-150. [Study used an incident survey card to allow police officers in Sydney, Australia to record their assessment of alcohol involvement for all incidents, not just arrests. Results indicated that 77% of street offences were alcohol related and that 60% of those were found to occur in or near licensed premises.] {97}

Ito, T.A. et al. (1996) Alcohol and aggression: A meta analysis on the moderating effects of inhibitory cues, triggering events and self-focused attention. Psychological Bulletin. 120(1):60-82. [A meta analysis of 49 studies to investigate 2 explanations of how alcohol increases aggression by decreasing sensitivity to cues that inhibit it. Found aggressiveness of intoxicated participants increased as a function of frustration.] {64}

Jaffe, J.H. et al. ( 1988) Alcoholics, aggression and antisocial personality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.49:211-218. [Investigated relationships among anti-social personality disorder and childhood history of aggressive behaviour among hospitalised alcoholics. Alcoholics reported more anger and aggression when drinking than when sober. Concludes that both alcohol consumption and childhood antecedents contribute to violent behaviour by alcoholics.] {121}

Jeavons, C. (1985) The control of alcohol-related aggression: Redirecting the inebriate's attention to socially appropriate conduct. Aggressive Behaviour. 11:93-103. [Results showed that the provision of a nonaggressive norm enabled highly intoxicated subjects to moderate their aggressive responding. Findings discussed in terms of cognitive disruption models of alcohol-related aggression.] {200}

Jenkins, M.G. et al. (1998) Violence and verbal abuse against staff in accident and emergency departments: a survey of consultants in the UK and the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Accident and Emergency.15:262-265. [Study to determine the incidence of verbal abuse and physical violence in accident and emergency departments. Found staff are regularly abused, both verbally and physically .] {131}

Johnson, H. (2000) The role of alcohol in male partners' assaults on wives. Journal of Drug Issues. 30(4): 725-740. [A study that investigates the importance of alcohol abuse as a predictive factor of wife abuse. It is proposed that the relationship between alcohol and violence may be a spurious one, with factors such as attitudes, age and unemployment playing crucial roles.] {239}

Juergen Kerner, H. et al. (1997) Patterns of criminality and alcohol abuse: results of the Tuebingen Criminal Behaviour Development Study. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. 7:401-420. [Paper examining the role of alcohol in crime and the relationship of alcohol abuse and chronic offenders. Results show that the more a person is involved in crime the more he is drinking and that alcohol abuse is an expression of the typical behavioural patterns and daily routine of criminals.] {85}

Kallmen, H. & Gustafson, R. (1998) Alcohol and Disinhibition. European Addiction Research.4:150-162. [This review provides an evaluation of the disinhibition hypothesis (as well as arousal/'time out' hypotheses). It examines the effects of alcohol on various aspects of human behaviour, including psychological conflicts, aggression & violent crime. Emphasising that the correlation between alcohol and criminal violence is often interpreted as causality. Concludes that there is no unambiguous support for disinhibition hypothesis.] {223}

Kelly, T.H. & Cherek, D.R. (1993) The effects of alcohol on free-operant aggressive behaviour. Journal of studies on alcohol. 54: Supl. 11:40-52. [Investigates the relationship between alcohol and aggressive behaviour using a free-operant procedure. Discusses the role of contextual factors for social policy regarding violence and alcohol use.] {111}

Kelly, T.H. et al. (1988) Effects of provocation and alcohol on human aggressive behaviour. Drug and Alcohol dependence.21:105-112. [Investigated the effects of provoking stimuli on aggressive behaviour and on the relationship between alcohol and aggression. No interactions between alcohol effects and provocation conditions were found but aggressive responding was affected by provocation intensity and frequency.] {115}

King, M. (1986) At risk drinking among general practice attenders: Validation of the CAGE questionnaire. Psychological medicine. 16:213-217. [CAGE questionnaire used to screen at risk drinking among attenders at an inner London health centre. Shown to function most effectively at a cut-off point of two or more affirmative replies, with a sensitivity of 84%, specifity of 95% and positive predictive value of 45%.] {169}

Kreutzer, J.S. et al. (1984) Alcohol, aggression and assertiveness in men: dosage and expectancy effects. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.45:275-278. [Investigated the effect of alcohol on aggression and assertiveness. Aggression increased at a moderate alcohol dose and profanity at the high dose. Alcohol dose did not influence assertiveness.] {123}

Krishel, S. et al. (1999) alcohol and substance abuse training for emergency medicine residents: A survey of U.S programs. Academic Emergency Medicine. 6(9):964-966. [A survey was conducted to determine EM residency programs' core curriculum teachings on how to identify and counsel patients with alcohol and substance abuse. It is concluded that appropriate training methods may be lacking at present.] {216}

Kyriacou, D.N. et al. (1999) Risk factors for injury to women from domestic violence. The New England Journal of Medicine. 16:1892-1898. [Special emphasis placed on evaluating the effect of alcohol use by both the woman and her male partner. Although an association appears to exist between alcohol and domestic violence it is concluded that the precise mechanisms are not yet known. Thus, alcohol cannot be considered a necessary or sufficient condition for domestic violence.] {221}

Lang, A.R. & Sibrel, P.A. (1989) Psychological perspectives on alcohol consumption and interpersonal aggression: The potential role of individual difference in alcohol-related criminal violence. Criminal justice and behaviour. 16(3):299-324. [Reviews psychological research into the link between alcohol and interpersonal aggression with a particular reference to individual differences.] {79}

Lang, A.R. et al. (1975) Effects of alcohol on aggression in male social drinkers. Journal of abnormal psychology. 84(5):508-518. [Investigates the effects of alcohol on aggressive behaviour in male social drinkers. The only significant determinant of aggression was the expectation factor. Also Subjects receiving alcohol showed a significant increase in reaction time regardless of expectation.] {173}

Lang, E. & Rumbold, G. (1997) The effectiveness of community-based interventions to reduce violence in and around licensed premises: a comparison of three Australian models. Contemporary Drug Problems. 24:805-826. [The early success of locally based initiatives dealing with the problem of alcohol-related aggression are considered. This article reviews three of the better-known accords, conclusions are made regarding the sustainability and efficacy of these approaches.] {203}

Langley, J. et al. (1996) Incidence of death and hospitalisation from assault occurring in and around licensed premises: a comparative analysis. Addiction. 91(7):985-993. [ Study to determine the incidence of serious assault in and around licensed premises in New Zealand and to compare the circumstances with those that occurred in other locations. In comparison with homes, homicides in licensed premises were found to be more likely to involve alcohol.] {55}

Lapham, S.C. et al. (1999) Use of AUDIT for alcohol screening among Emergency Room patients in Thailand. Substance Use & Misuse. 34(13):1881-1895.[Evaluated of the Alcohol Use Disorders Test against blood alcohol levels. Concluded that AUDIT was an effective alcohol screening instrument in the population studied.]{226}

Leadly, K. et al. Couples drinking patterns, intimate partner violence and alcohol-related partnership problems. Journal of Substance Abuse. 11(3):253-263. [Findings from the survey on alcohol-consumption patterns and intimate partner violence show couples tend to share drinking patterns, but that it is when there are major discrepancies in the amount of alcohol consumed that relationship problems, including physical violence are more likely. However, it is emphasised that although the results show an association between alcohol and violence there is no evidence that alcohol is necessary to cause or facilitate both or either one.] {207}

Leather, P. & Lawrence, C. (1995) Perceiving pub violence: The symbolic influence of social and environmental factors. British Journal of Social Psychology. 34:95-407. [Investigates how social and environmental characteristics of public houses can influence the perception of some bars as being more 'violence prone' and some licensees as being more aggressive. Found that judgements of the licensee and the pub atmosphere are influenced by manipulation of the physical and social character of the setting.] {105}

Lenke, L. (1982) Alcohol and crimes of violence: a causal analysis. Contemporary drug problems.11(3):355-363. [Article which advocates the view that the role of alcohol in violent crime must be seen as just one causal factor.] {176}

Leonard, K.E. (1984) Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.45:75-80. [Looked at interaction patterns in intoxicated and sober male dyads. Intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels for their opponents than sober dyads.] {125}

Lindman, R.E. & Lang, A.R. (1994) The alcohol-aggression stereotype: a cross-cultural comparison of beliefs. The International Journal of the Addictions. 29(1):1-13. [Cross cultural study which used multi sample means analysis to compare changes in aggressive behaviours believed to occur after drinking 'many' alcoholic drinks. Concludes that the expectation that drinking leads to aggression may be determined to a significant extent by contextual factors and cultural traditions related to alcohol use.] {142}

Lipsey, M.W. et al. (1997) Is there a causal relationship between alcohol use and violence? A synthesis of evidence. In Galanter, M. (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism, Vol.13: Alcoholism & Violence. Plenum press, New York. [Reviews evidence about the link between drinking alcohol and subsequent violent behaviour. Concludes that although some evidence shows an association between the two this does not imply that alcohol plays a causal role in violent behaviour.] {165}

Little, K. et al. (1980) Alcohol and the emergency service patient. BMJ. 281:638-640. [ Study to determine the prevalence of alcohol use in casualty patients breath-alcohol analysis. 40% of patients had consumed alcohol before attending. Clinical assessment resulted in 10% of patients being wrongly diagnosed, indicating that an objective test of blood alcohol concentration may be of value.] {46}

Lockhart, S.P. (1986) Detecting alcohol consumption as a cause of emergency general medical admissions. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 79:132-136. [Considers both the proportion of alcohol-related admissions and the most effective method of screening. Findings indicate that questions on level of alcohol consumption and clinical suspicion are more efficient than questionnaire (MAST), biochemical or haematological screening tests in detecting alcohol-related medical problems.] {194}

Lynch, M. & Greaves, I. (2000) Regular attenders to the accident and emergency department. EMJ. 17:351-354. [Examined the profile of regular attenders to an A&E department in order to estimate the overall percentage of workload attributed to this group. Forty regular attenders presented 475 times in six months accounting for 1.1% of the workload. Alcohol intoxication was one of the most common presenting complaints.] {73}

Makela, P. et al. (1997) Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use to socio-economic variation in mortality: Register based follow up study. BMJ.315:211-216. [Class differentials in alcohol related mortality were found to be an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence.] {247}

Marsh, P. & Fox Kibby, K. (1992) Drinking and public disorder. The Portman Group. [The report, conducted by MCM Research Ltd, contains summaries and analyses of research conducted between October 1989 and April 1991. The research was primarily concerned with the so-called 'lager lout' phenomenon and the alleged links between drinking and disorderly behaviour.] {257}

Martin, S.E. & Bachman, R. (1997) The relationship of alcohol to injury in assault cases. In Galanter, M (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism,Vol.13:Alcoholism & Violence. Plenum press, New York. [Reviews the research on the effects of alcohol on interpersonal aggression and violence and presents new data on the escalation of threatening interactions to assaults and the likelihood of victim injury given an assault. Suggests future directions for research.] {162}

Massey, R.F. (1989) Intoxication as a defence against criminal charges in Florida: The research and the law. Criminal Justice and Behaviour. 16(3):325-344. [Reviews and compares psychological research and case law regarding intoxication as a defence. Findings are conflicting with some research validating legal rationale but others challenging intoxication as a defence.] {81}

Mayfield, D., McLeod, G. & Hall, P. (1974) The CAGE Questionnaire: Validation of a New Alcoholism Screening Instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry. 131:1121-3 [Concluded that CAGE is only a sensitive alcoholism detector if a two- or three- positive response criterion is used and only for large groups. Copy of response criterion included in article.] {191}

McClintock, F.H. & Wilkstrom, P. (1992) The comparative study of urban violence: Criminal violence in Edinburgh and Stockholm. British journal of Criminology. 32(4):505-520. [Preliminary findings are presented from a comparative study of violent crimes as reported by police in Edinburgh and Stockholm. Findings suggest that although there are some differences there are basic similarities between the two cities in the social context distributions and urban patterns of violence.] {42}

MCM Research. (1993) Keeping the peace. A guide to the prevention of alcohol-related disorder. [A practical guide covering various aspects of drink-related disorder that considers the role that each agency or group can play in reducing the problems.]The Portman Group. {41}

McManus, J. & Mullett, D. Safe and health: a guide to partnership between health authorities and community safety partnerships. [A guide for members of crime and disorder reduction partnerships wishing to work more closely with local health agencies.] NACRO. {231}

Moeller, F.G. (2001) Antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression. Alcohol Research and Health. 25(1):5-11. [It is suggested that individuals with APSD may be more prone to alcohol related aggression. Background research on alcohol and violence is discussed, as are possible mechanisms contributing to this relationship- including biological neurological explanations.] {214}

Murdoch, D. & Pihl, R. (1988) The influence of beverage type on aggression in males in the natural setting. Aggressive Behaviour. 14:3325-335. [A field study was conducted to see if subjects drinking distilled beverages are more aggressive than those drinking brewed beverages. Findings supported the hypothesis thus reinforcing what has previously been found in lab settings, in a natural setting.] {195}

Murdoch, D. et al. (1990) Alcohol and crimes of violence. The International Journal of the Addictions.25(9):1065-1081. [Examines correlational studies between alcohol and violent crime. Concludes that although a strong correlational relationship exists between the two, the nature of the evidence prohibits a causal link, and points to methodological flaws such as lack of comparison groups.] {139}

Myers, T. (1986) An analysis of context and alcohol consumption in a group of criminal events. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 21(4):389-395. [Attempts to demonstrate the importance of examining the context of alcohol consumption with regard to a criminal event. The circumstances at the time of the crime were related more to the level of alcohol consumption than to the scale of violence involved.] {137}

Nash Parker, R. & Auerhahn, K. (1998) Alcohol, drugs and violence. Annual review of sociology 24:291-311. [Reviews the literature on the link between alcohol, drugs and violence. Findings suggest that alcohol use is significantly related to violence and talks about the importance of social context for understanding violence. Mentions the shortcomings of theoretical models and the need for definitive empirical tests.] {68}

NHS Executive. (1997) The Caldicott Committee: Report on the review of patient-identifiable information. [Looks at ways in which patient information is used in the NHS and explores the tension between the needs of the service for patient information and the expectation of the patients that the information will be kept confidential.] {237}

Nillsen, M.D. et al. (1994) The CAGE questionnaire and the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test in trauma patients: Comparison of their correlations with biological alcohol markers. The Journal of Trauma 36(6):784-787. [Study compares correlations of SMAST and CAGE with 3 biological alcohol markers in trauma patients. Finding showed that CAGE was better correlated to the weighted biological markers than SMAST. Therefore CAGE may be useful in identifying alcohol problems in trauma patients.] {193}

Norstrom, T. (1998) Effects on criminal violence of different beverage types and private and public drinking. Addiction.93(5):689-699. [Investigated the relationship between homicide and assault rates and alcohol consumption. Findings suggested that the assault rate is linked to consumption of beer and spirits in bars and restaurants , while the homicide rate is linked to consumption of spirits in private.] {117}

Norton, A. (1998) Alcohol-related crime: The good practice of the Magistrates' courts. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 33(1):78-82. [Puts forward several proposals for improving the system which deals with alcohol related crime in the Magistrates Courts.] {91}

Norton, R.N. & Morgan, M.Y. (1989) Improving information on the role of alcohol in interpersonal violence in Great Britain. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 24(6):577-589. [A critical review of British studies and surveillance systems which concludes that the role of alcohol in interpersonal violence could be defined more precisely.] {135}

Ogborne, A.C. (2000) Identifying and treating patients with alcohol-related problems. CMAJ.162(12):1705-1708. [Article stating that case finding is an essential part of 'best practice'. Patients with varying degrees of alcohol problems will benefit from different levels of intervention.] {70}

Owens, L. et al. (1999) Knowledge and attitudes of practice nurses in caring for patients with alcohol-related problems. Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of Medical Council on Alcoholism. 34 (1):111 [Reported that 10% of the population of Liverpool abuse alcohol and that GP clinics (and thus practice nurses) are often the first stage of the health care system this 10% come into contact with. A study was conducted to asses practice nurses' knowledge of alcohol-related problems. Findings showed that their abilities to deliver advice on sensible drinking is limited and that further training of practice nurses may be an effective intervention.] {192}

Papoz, L. et al. (1986) Biological markers of alcohol intake among 4796 subjects injured in accidents. BMJ.292:1234-1237. [ An epidemiological survey carried out in France from 1982-83 of the proportions of occasional and chronic drinkers among those injured in accidents. Found alcohol in blood of 35% of injured people.] {147}

Parker, R.N. & Cartmill, R.S. (1998) Alcohol and homicide in the United States 1934-1995; Or one reason why U.S rates of violence may be going down. Journal of Criminal law and criminology. 88(4):1369-1398. [Paper presenting data on alcohol and homicide. Implications of this analysis are discussed in terms of their importance for research on violence.] {74}

Parks, K. (2000) An Event-Based Analysis of Aggression Women Experience in Bars. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours. 14(2):102-110. [Looks at difference that exist in social and environmental circumstances between times when aggression does and does not occur in bars. At times when aggression occurred women spent less time in the bar, drank more alcohol and reported feeling more intoxicated. Differences were found between sexual and non-sexual incidents.] {236}

Pawson, R. & Tilley, N. (1997) Realistic evaluation. Sage, London. [An observant critique of current evaluation practices that also introduces new models for a fresh approach.] {242}

Pease, K. (1998) Repeat victimisation: Taking stock. Home Office. Crown copyright. [based on the conclusions of the research to date Pease suggests that victimisation is the best single predictor of victimisation. The report is aimed at making crime reduction programmes, with an element of repeat victimisation in their remit, more aware of the current research and its implications.] {250}

Pensola, T. & Valkonen, T. (2000) Mortality differences by parental social class from childhood to adulthood. Journal of Epidemiol Community Health. 54:525-529. [Found parental social class has an impact on mortality after childhood mainly through health related behaviours and lifestyles up to age 34.] {253}

Pernanen, K. (1982) Theoretical aspects of the relationship between alcohol use and crime. In Collins, J. (Ed) Drinking and crime: perspectives on the relationships between alcohol consumption and criminal behaviour. [Pernanen discusses some of the frequently adopted theories, models and hypotheses that are often cited when trying to identify the association between alcohol use and crime.] Tavistock, London.{186}

Pernanen, K. (1991) Alcohol in human violence. The Guildford Press, New York. This book provides a perspective on the subject of alcohol and violence across national borders. The data are taken from a Canadian study undertaken between 1977 and 1981 which are then compared information from Scandinavia and from the United States. {185}

Pernanen, K. (2001) The social cost of alcohol-related crime: Conceptual, theoretical and causal attributions. [Paper focusing on the theoretical and conceptual background for establishing etiologic fractions for alcohol use in crimes. Discusses different ways in which alcohol is assumed to be connected to criminal behaviour.] {22}

Phillips, C. et al. (2000) A review of audits and strategies produced by crime and disorder partnerships in 1999. [The briefing note gives an overview of the contents of the audit and strategy documents produced by crime and disorder partnerships in 1999.] {23}

Piccinelli, M. et al. (1997) Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study. BMJ. 314:420. [Evaluation of the alcohol use disorders identification test. Found it performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Five of the ten items on the questionnaire are recommended.] {248}

Pihl, R.O. (1986) Alcohol and aggression: A test of the affect arousal hypothesis. Aggressive Behaviour. 12:367-375. [This study examined the effect of prevailing mood and alcohol on aggressive behaviour. Findings showed that participants receiving alcohol were significantly more aggressive than placebo or sober participants. However, mood-induction did not produce a significant effect on aggressive responding.] {199}

Pihl, R.O. & Lemarquand, D. (1998) Serotonin and Aggression and the alcohol-aggression relationship. Alcohol and alcoholisim.33(1):55-65.( Discusses the possible mechanisms involved in the link between alcohol and violence and looks at how these effects can be mediated by serotonergic activity.) {230}

Pihl, R.O. & Peterson, J.B. (1993) Alcohol/Drug use and aggressive behaviour, In: Hodgins, S.(ed.) Mental disorder and crime, pp.263-283. London, Sage. [Increasingly violent crime is being related to alcohol and drug abuse but this might be a function of the environment in which aggression is more likely to be expressed. Crime statistics might also be affected by the fact that intoxicated persons are more susceptible to being caught.] {88}

Pihl, R.O. et al. (1984) Alcohol and aggression in men: a comparison of brewed and distilled beverages. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 45:278-282. [Investigated the effects of distilled and brewed beverages on aggressive behaviour. Subjects who had consumed beer or thought they had, were significantly less aggressive than those who consumed spirits or believed they had.] {124}

Pirmohamed, M., Brown, C., Owens, I., Luke, C. et al (2000) The burden of alcohol misuse on an inner-city general hospital. Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 93:291-5. [Concerned with the burden increasing alcohol consumption may be placing on hospital services. Study focuses on A&E department in NW England. Concludes burden is enormous and that education, screening and intervention strategies are required.] {189}

Poldrugo, F. (1998) Alcohol and criminal behaviour. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 33(1):12-15. [Despite evidence of a relationship between alcohol, alcoholism and crime, it is not one of simple causality. It is proposed that by looking at the coexistence of alcohol misuse with psychiatric disorders, intellectual impairment, and criminal behaviour advances can be made. A few points are made about lack of figures/records.] {222}

Portman Group. (2001) Alcohol and society. The Portman Group. [A poll to investigate British public opinion with regards to alcohol and the part it plays in their lives.] {1}

Povey, K. H.M. Inspector. (2000) On the record: Thematic inspection report on police crime recording. Home Office. HM Inspectorate of Constabulary. [A detailed report assessing data collection practices throughout the police forces of England and Wales. It identifies many instances of good practice but also highlights a number of areas that require development. It is hoped that the report will provide the information that police forces require to improve their performance in achieving high quality, accurate and consistent data with a view to maximising their crime reduction potential.] {30}

Radburn, S. Data exchange & crime mapping. Home Office. [A sensible and informative guide to data collection and collation for crime reduction partnerships with information on software, data quality issues, the data protection act, affordable solutions and attainable goals.] {180}

Rainer, T.H. et al. (1996) Critical analysis of an accident and emergency ward. Journal of Accident and Emergency. 13:325-329. [Looks at the A&E ward at Glasgow Royal Infirmary and critically analyses it. Concludes that the safe and effective use of the ward depends upon it being well resourced.] {130}

Raistrick, D. (1994) Alcohol, other drugs, and violence. In Shepherd, J.P. (Ed) Violence in health care: A practical guide to coping with violence and caring for victims. OUP, Oxford. [Raistrick suggests that appropriate management of aggression depends on the accurate assessment of its causes and meaning and that those in charge of treatment need to adapt general principles to suit their individual setting or profession.] {172}

Raistrick, D. et al. (Ed's) (1999)Tackling alcohol together: the evidence base for a UK alcohol policy. Free association books. London. [Concerned with emphasising issues surrounding alcohol policy in the U.K. seeking to place the evidence base for a national policy within a contemporary and historical perspective.] {225}

Ramsay, M. (1989) Downtown drinkers: the perceptions and fears of the public in a city centre. Crime Prevention Unit, Paper 19, Home Office. [Ramsay assesses the effect of the introduction of the byelaw in Coventry. Public drinkers were seen as a common problem by over half the residents in general.] {12}

Ramsay, M. (1990) Lagerland Lost? An experiment in keeping drinkers off the streets in central Coventry and elsewhere. Crime Prevention Unit, Paper 19, Home Office. [Evaluating the introduction of the byelaw in Coventry Ramsay suggests that its successes were not without limits. While the byelaw succeeded in reducing instances of incivilities crime as a whole continued at much the same level.] {25}

Raskin White, H. & Hansell, S. (1996) The moderating effects of gender and hostility on the alcohol-aggression relationship. Journal of research in crime and delinquency. 33(4):450-470. [Used data from a longitudinal study of males and females from adolescence into adulthood to look at the relationship between alcohol use and aggression. Found prior aggressive behaviour predicts later alcohol-related aggression in males and prior alcohol use predicts the same for females.] {78}

Redmond, A.D. et al. (1987) The significance of random breath alcohol sampling in the Accident and Emergency Department. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 22(4):341-343. [Compared different methods of screening patients attending an A&E department for alcohol problems. Claimed the most effective method is to ask patients about their habits.] {89}

Rehm, J. et al. (2001) Average volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking, and all-cause mortality: Results from the US National Alcohol Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology. 153(1):64-71. [Results emphasised the importance of routinely including measures of drinking patterns into future epidemiologic studies on alcohol- related mortality.] {246}

Rix, K.J. (1989) 'Alcohol intoxication' or 'Drunkenness': Is there a difference? Medicine ,science ,law. 29(2):100-106. [Paper discussing when the two terms in the title should be used. Clinical and legal implications are discussed.] {84}

Roberson, R. et al. (1995) Drunkenness among police detainees. Addiction. 90:793-803. [A study looking at the number of people arrested for being drunk and the apparent drunkenness of all other detainees.] {220}

Roberts, M., Fox, C., McManus, J. (2001) Drink and disorder: Alcohol, crime and anti-social behaviour. [Discusses the problematic association between alcohol and disorder. This relationship is never easy to define and is dependent on many variables. While the benefits can not be overlooked work still needs to be done to reduce crime and within this remit considering alcohol issues has a significant part to play.]NACRO, London. {244}

Roche, M. (2000) The underrated role of alcohol. Emergency Medicine. 12(4):272-273. [Looks at alcohol-related (as opposed to heroine-related) deaths, alcohol use with other drugs (both prescription and non), alcohol-related illness and alcohol-related ER admissions (figures given). Also proposes brief intervention in ER can have high impact on alcohol consumption.] {86}

Roizen, J. (1997) Epidemiological issues in alcohol-related violence. In Galanter, M. (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism, Vol.13:Alcoholism & Violence. Plenum press, New York. [Identifies some of the limitations that confront researchers, policy makers and end users of research on alcohol and violence and argues that epidemiological research would benefit from further qualitative research on the natural history of violent events.] {161}

Roman, P.M. (1982) Situational factors in the relationship between alcohol and crime. In Collins, J. (Ed) Drinking and crime: perspectives on the relationships between alcohol consumption and criminal behaviour. Tavistock, London. [a discussion of a number of hypotheses stemming from several bodies of published literature, prepared to determine the state of the art linking situational factors to drinking and criminal behavior .] {187}

Romelsjo, A. (1995) Alcohol consumption and unintentional injury, suicide, violence, work performance and inter-generational effects. In Holder, H.D. & Edwards, G. (Eds) Alcohol and public policy: evidence and issues. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [Romelsjo considers causation in alcohol-involved problems, revises methodological issues such as measurement of alcohol consumption and outcomes, and discusses emergency room studies.] {160}

Rosovsky, H. (1989) Alcohol-related casualties and crime in Mexico: Description of reporting systems and results for a study. In Giesbrecht, N. et al (Eds) Drinking and casualties: Accidents, poisonings and violence in an international perspective. Tavistock/ Routledge, London. [This paper discusses the role of alcohol consumption in casualties from accidents and violent delinquent behavior in Mexican public health.] {167}

Rossow, I. (1996) Alcohol-related violence: the impact of drinking pattern and drinking context. Addiction. 91(11):1651-1661. [Survey looking at the impact of alcohol consumption, drinking pattern and drinking context in alcohol-related violence. Found involvement in alcohol-related violence was positively associated with alcohol consumption, frequency of intoxication and frequency of visiting drinking places.] {54}

Rossow, I. (2001) Alcohol and homicide: a cross-cultural comparison of the relationship in 14 European countries. Addiction.96:77-92. [Cross national and cross cultural comparison of the association between alcohol consumption and homicide . Total alcohol sales were significantly associated with homicide rates in five countries with the strongest association in Northern European countries.] {50}

Rossow, I. et al. (1999) Young wet and wild? Associations between alcohol intoxication and violent behaviour in adolescence. Addiction.94(7):1017-1031. . [ Cross sectional study to assess gender and age specific associations between alcohol intoxication and engagement in violent behaviour in young people. Found a small direct effect of alcohol on violence but mentions that possible indirect effects of alcohol intoxication, mediated certain variables should also be taken into consideration.] {53}

Rowland, N. et al. (1987) Doctors have no time for alcohol screening. BMJ. 295:95-96. [Brief report documenting the authors attempts to encourage junior medical staff to incorporate brief screening questions on alcohol intake into medical histories they take from patients. Found doctors didn't see it as a priority.] {149}

Royal College of Physicians. (2001) Working party report- Alcohol- Can the NHS afford it? [the report suggests that the cost of alcohol to the NHS necessitates the introduction of strategies to counter the 'magnitude of the burden'] {2}

Rumgay, J. (1998) Crime, Punishment and the drinking offender. Basingstoke: Macmillan. [A critical review is presented of the relationship between alcohol use and crime. The author examines the popularity and effectiveness of the appeal to intoxication as a mitigating factor in criminal cases.] {87}

Sayette, M.A. et al. (1993) Alcohol and aggression: a social information processing analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.54: Supl. 11:399-407. [Investigated the effects of alcohol on aggression. The more a subject had drunk the more likely it was that he would respond in an aggressive manner.] {118}

Selzer, M.L. (1971) The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: The Quest for a New Diagnostic Instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry. 127:1653-8. [Discussed are the methods employed in devising MAST, it's validity and reliability. Concluded to be an effective way of finding alcoholics in a population- copy of the test included in the article.] {190}

Shepherd, J.P. (1990) Violent crime in Bristol: An accident and Emergency department perspective. The British Journal of criminology. 30(3):289-305. [A victim survey using A&E data. Found most assaults took place in the street or in public houses.] {76}

Shepherd, J.P. (1994a) Violent crime: the role of alcohol and new approaches to the prevention of injury. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 29(1):5-10. [Suggests several ways in which to reduce levels of alcohol-related violent crime.] {136}

Shepherd, J.P. (1994b) Preventing injuries from bar glasses. BMJ. 308:932-933. Editorial. [discusses the use of plastic glass and toughened glass and suggests a code of practice on use in pub gardens and urban pubs with a view to reducing the 'morbidity produced by bar glass'.] {38}

Shepherd, J.P. (1998a) Emergency room research on links between alcohol and violent injury Addiction. 93(8):1261-1263. Letter. [Suggests that recent research by G. Borges, et al should have taken into account studies of the links between alcohol and assault injury in England and Wales, which have almost identical crime prevalence rates to those in the United States .] {57}

Shepherd, J.P. (1998b) Tackling violence. BMJ, 316:879-880. Editorial. [advocates doctors becoming involved in interagency approaches to crime.] {35}

Shepherd, J.P. (2000) Using injury data for violence prevention. BMJ, 321:1481-1482. Editorial. [Shepherd discusses information sharing in light of the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act and suggests that data sharing between police and A&E has already begun to reap rewards.] {36}

Shepherd, J.P. & Brickley, M. (1996) The relationship between alcohol intoxication, stressors and injury in urban violence. British Journal of criminology. 36(4):546-566. [Investigated the link between alcohol, stressors and injury in parallel case control and cohort studies of injured people presenting at a large A&E department. Blood alcohol level and injury severity were significantly related to levels of alcohol consciousness. The authors suggest that heavy binge drinking increases vulnerability to injury.] {75}

Shepherd, J.P. and Farrington D.P (1995) Preventing crime and violence. BMJ. 310:271-272. Editorial. [discuss reasons why preventing crime and violence should be considered a central issue in health care and suggests that family support and the training of parents are among ways to prevent crime and violence.] {44}

Shepherd, J.P. & Rivara, F.P. (1998) Vulnerability, victims and violence. Journal of Accident and Emergency.15:39-45. [Paper that argues that since many of the underlying causes and circumstances of violence can be modified a more proactive interagency approach would be effective in the fight against violence.] {132}

Shepherd, J.P. & Sivarajasingham,V. (2001)Trends in Community violence in England and Wales 1995-1998:an accident and emergency department perspective.EMJ.18:105-109. [Collection of national violence data from a random sample of A&E departments in England and Wales to identify national trends in violence. Found there was no overall change in the levels of violence between 1995-1998.] {143}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1988a) Alcohol intoxication and severity of injury in victims of assault. BMJ. 296: 1299. [Investigated the association between degree of intoxication and severity of injury. Found a link between consumption of alcohol by a victim and more serious injury and that binge drinking conferred greater risk of severe injury.] {148}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1988b) Assault: characteristics of victims attending an inner-city hospital. Injury. 19:185-190. [Paper characterizing victims of assault attending a district general hospital which found that 73% of victims had drunk alcohol immediately preceding injury.] {94}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1989a) Alcohol consumption among victims of violence and among comparable U. K. populations. British Journal of Addiction. 84:1045-1051. [A prospective survey comparing victims drinking habits with a control group. Results suggested that young male victims of assault may not be distinguishable form other young males on the basis of habitual or binge alcohol consumption.] {108}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1989b) Recording by the police of violent offences: An Accident and Emergency department perspective. Medicine ,science ,law. 29(3):251-257. [Investigated police recording of consecutive victims of violence who sought treatment in a large A&E department. Police only recorded 25% of victims of assault.] {83}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1990) Glass abuse and urban licensed premises.Letter to the editor. JRSocMed. 83:276-277. [Suggests that while evidence exists that injury from glasses is common, information on which preventative measure might be based is lacking.] {152}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1991) Trends in the aetiology of maxillofacial fractures in the United Kingdom (1977-1987). British Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 29:250-255. [Examines changes in the aetiology of maxillofacial fractures in the United Kingdom between 1977 and 1987.Shows an increase of 20% in numbers of patients with maxillofacial fractures, though a trend to wards fewer severe injuries.] {98}

Shepherd, J.P. et al. (1993) Trends in urban violence: a comparison of accident department and police records. JRSocMed.86:87-88. [Longitudinal investigation of assault injury at an A&E department between 1973 and 1990. Found an overall increase in violence after 1987.] {156}

Shepherd, J.P. et al (1998) Trends in facial injury. BMJ. 316:325-326. Editorial. [Shepherd et al suggest that a number of serious facial injuries are preventable and a beneficial strategy may be to target 13-14 year olds and warn them of the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption and its association with assaults and road accidents.] {43}

Simmons, J. (2000) Review of crime statistics: A discussion document Home Office. [The report clearly sets out some of the problems within current crime recording practices in England and Wales and offers a 'blueprint' for a system which will enable a clearer more reliable picture.] {9}

Simpson, T., Murphy, N. & Peck, D.F. (2001) Saliva alcohol concentrations in accident and emergency attendances. EMJ.18:250-254. [Examines the relationship between alcohol concentrations and the severity, type and circumstances of presentation and sociodemographic characteristics of A&E patients.]{240}

Single, E. (1993) Public drinking. In Galanter, M. (Ed) Recent developments in Alcoholism,Vol.11:Ten years of progress. Plenum press, New York. [Summarizes the findings of observational studies in bars and taverns and argues that greater attention should be placed on prevention programmes that focus on drinking environments.] {166}

Smith, L. (1987) Crime in hospitals; diagnosis and prevention. Crime Prevention unit, Paper 7, Home Office. [A report based on over a thousand members of staff within the health sector details their experiences of crime. Drawing on analysis of the data it then describes a number of measures designed to prevent crime and to reduce the fear of crime.] {26}

Stockwell, T. (1997) Regulation of the licensed drinking environment: A major opportunity for crime prevention. In Homel, R. (Ed) Policing for prevention: Reducing crime, public intoxication and injury. Crime prevention studies. Vol. 7. Criminal Justice Press, New York. [Provides an overview of a research programme that identified the prior drinking locations of offenders and the characteristics of high-risk drink settings. Licensed premises were found to be at high risk fro violent offences. Results from an intervention programme indicated that reductions in risk and harm can occur when there is full cooperation form a licensed venue.] {181}

Stockwell, T. et al. (1992) The relationship between license type and alcohol-related problems attributed to licensed premises in Perth, Western Australia. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 53:495-498. [Study looking at degree of alcohol-related problems associated with different licensed premises. Found nightclubs, taverns and hotels were more high risk than clubs and restaurants.] {119}

Stockwell, T. Lang, E. & Rydon, P. (1993) High risk drinking settings: the association of serving and promotional practices with harmful drinking. Addiction. 88:1519-1526. [Household survey in Western Australia exploring drinkers reports about where they drank alcohol and their experiences of alcohol-related harm. Found licensed premises were significantly most likely settings used prior to harm and that bar staff serving obviously intoxicated customers was the most powerful predictor of harm.] {145}

Sumner, M. & Parker, H. (1995) Low in alcohol. A review of international research into alcohol's role in crime causation. The Portman Group. [The report presents an overview of the information and literature, then available, on the links between alcohol and crime.] {6}

Taylor, C. et al. (1986) Prospective study of alcohol-related admissions in an inner-city hospital. The Lancet. 265-267. [Found that 26.3% of acute admissions to the casualty ward of a general London hospital were alcohol-related.] {154}

Taylor, S.P. & Chermack, S.T. (1993) Alcohol, drugs and human physical aggression. Journal of studies on alcohol. 54:Supl. 11:78-88. [Review of research on the relationship between alcohol, drugs and aggression. Includes a hypothetical model that summarizes their experimental findings and is used to discuss the major factors and psychological processes involved in alcohol-induced aggression.] {112}

Taylor, S.P. & Leonard, K.E. (1983) Alcohol and human physical aggression. In Green, R, G. & Donnerstein, E, I (Eds), Aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews. Academic Press, London. [Examines the available evidence concerning alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour and concludes that given the presence of instigative cues, a moderate dose of alcohol is increase the probability that an aggressive response will occur.] {159}

Teplin, L.A. et al. (1989) Blood alcohol level among emergency room patients: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 50(5):441-447. [Investigated the distribution of positive blood alcohol levels(BAL) among emergency room patients. 25% has positive BAL's and a significant relationship was found between other demographic variables and BAL. Being involved in an accident was significantly predictive of a high BAL.] {120}

Tomsen, S. (1997) A top night. British journal of criminology. 37(1):90-102. [Looks at the tie between masculine social identity and heavy group drinking and the importance of issues of male honour in the social interaction that leads to some violent behaviour. Also details the author's ethnographic study of assaults in public drinking venues which claims to illuminate the subjective experience of participation in acts of disorder and violence.] {174}

Touhig, D. (1998) A British all-party committee view on alcohol and violence. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 33(1):89-91. [An enquiry into the link between alcohol and crime which summarizes the evidence received and proposes a range of recommendations aimed at tackling alcohol-related crime.] {92}

Touquet, R. et al. (1993) Management of alcohol abusing patients in accident and emergency departments. JRSocMed.86:393-395. [A twenty four month study at two London A&E departments to determine if patients with an alcohol problem would like to be helped. Almost half the patients identified as having a problem returned the next day to seek advice.] {153}

Touquet, R. et al. (1996) Detection of alcohol misusing patients in accident and emergency departments: the Paddington alcohol test (PAT). Journal of Accident and emergency medicine. 13:308-312. [Development of an effective , practical screening questionnaire for use by A&E staff to detect alcohol misuse in patients. Results showed a referral rate of one patient per 158 A&E adult attenders. The authors conclude that the PAT is a practical method for A&E staff to detect the alcohol misusing patient for referral to a departmental alcohol health worker.] {47}

Touquet, R. et al. (1998) Intervention by an alcohol health worker in an Accident and Emergency Department. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 33(6):651-656. [Evaluates the effect of brief intervention by an alcohol health worker on alcohol consumption. Found a statistically significant reduction in alcohol consumption.] {90}

Treno, A.J. et al. (1998) Sample selection bias in the emergency room: an examination of the role of alcohol in injury. Addiction. 93(1):113-129. [Study used injury location, cause and patient drinking patterns to predict blood alcohol content and self reported drinking before injury using emergency room data. Found there were significant selection bias effects and that assaults wee more likely to involve drinking than any other injury types.] {151}

Walfish, S. & Blount, W.R. (1989) Alcohol and crime: Issues and directions for future research. Criminal justice and behaviour. 16(3):370-386. [Reviews research into the relationship between alcohol and crime with an emphasis on methods of data analysis, choice of subjects and other variables. The authors conclude that more sophisticated methodologies and more precise definitions of both type of crime and type of alcohol use are needed. The use of chemical tests for blood alcohol levels are also advocated.] {80}

Walsh, M.E. & Macleod, D.A. (1982) Breath alcohol analysis in the Accident and Emergency Department. Injury. 15:62-66. [Took breath alcohol analyses of patients attending an A&E department of a rural district general hospital. Concluded that this method is rapid, non invasive, accurate and of clinical value when assessing patients with head injuries and other high risk patients.] {95}

Webb, G. (1995) A filter model to describe bias in official statistics on alcohol-related injuries. Accident analysis and prevention. 27(5):687-697. [Describes a filter model that can be used to explore the possible biases that occur in reporting of alcohol-related injuries. Provides estimates regarding the extent of loss of data at each filter and puts forward suggestions for improving the quality of official statistics on alcohol-related injuries.] {67}

Weisman, A.M. & Taylor, S.P. (1993) Effect of alcohol and risk of physical harm on human physical aggression. The Journal of General Psychology. 12(1):67-76. [Investigated whether feedback regarding risk of electric shock would effect responses. Intoxicated subjects responded more aggressively than those drinking a placebo. Feedback had no effect.] {184}

Wild, T.C. et al. (1998) Blame and punishment for intoxicated aggression: when is the perpetrator culpable? Addiction.93(3):677-687. [Investigated whether intoxicated individuals are viewed as less culpable than sober individuals for engaging in aggressive behaviour. Found intoxication did not attenuate perceived blameworthiness.] {116}

Wiley, J.A. & Weisner, C. (1995) Drinking in violent and non-violent events leading to arrest: Evidence from a survey of arrestees. Journal of criminal justice. 23(5):461-476. [Investigated the impact of personal drinking patterns and drinking events on violent crimes in a random sample of arrestees. Found arrestees charged with violent crimes showed significantly higher rates of drinking in events related to arrest.] {82}

Yates, D.W. et al. (1987) The detection of Problem Drinkers in the Accident and Emergency Department. British Journal of Addiction. 82:163-167. [Study to identify characteristics of patients with alcohol related problems. Suggests that a combination of questionnaire and blood alcohol concentration measurement is the most accurate way of identifying these patients. Casualty officers advised to take a brief alcohol history from certain groups of patients.] {69}

Yates, D.W., Hadfield, J.M., Peters, K. (1987) Alcohol consumption of patients attending two accident and emergency departments in north-west England. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 80: 486-489. [Looked at the impact of alcohol use on the workload of tow A&E departments. 13.2% of all patients has a positive blood alcohol concentration, 78% of those attending after midnight and 60% of assaulted patients were inebriated.] {45}

Zeichner, A. et al. (1982) Attentional processes in alcohol-mediated aggression. Journal of studies on alcohol. 43(7):714-724. [Study found forced attention did not decrease subsequent aggressiveness in intoxicated subjects.] {113}