Insurance Risk

Sex differences in driving  - download the full report in pdf format Click on the accompanying image to download and read the full document using Adobe's Acrobat Reader.



Motherhood in Western Europe

Insights from Western European Mothers

The changing face of motherhood — Western Europe

The accompanying reports combine a review of existing literature with an analysis of original quantitative data derived from a poll of 9,582 mothers from 12 countries in Western Europe, making it one of the largest studies of this kind ever conducted

Child Obesity and Health

An analysis of the latest available data from the Health Survey for England (HSE)

Child Obesity and Health — download the full report in pdf format

In this ‘National Childhood Obesity Week’, the SIRC report, Children, obesity and heath: Recent trends, holds up a true mirror, accurately reflecting the trend towards slimmer, healthier children. more

The Future of Freemasonry

An examination of the role of Freemasonry in the 21st century


This report is, as far as we know, an account of the first ever study that has been commissioned by Freemasons from a non-Masonic body. None of the SIRC members involved in the project are Freemasons, a fact that evoked surprise and welcome in equal measure from the Lodge members we met. more

The Changing Face of Motherhood

Insights from three generations of mothers


The report seeks to answer some specific questions about the changing face of motherhood and determine the extent to which modern ‘solutions’ to motherhood are more or less beneficial than the solutions of the past. more

Sex differences in driving and insurance risk


Abdel-Aty, M. A. and Abdelwahab, H. T. (2000). Exploring the relationship between alcohol and the driver characteristics in motor vehicle accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 32, 505 - 515.

Alexander, E. A., Kallail, K. J., Burdsal, J. P., and Ege, D. L. (1990). Multifactorial causes of adolescent driver accidents: Investigation of time as a major variable. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 413-417.

Alm, C., and Lindberg, E. (2000) Perceived Risk, Feelings of safety and worry associated with different travel modes. Pilot study. KFTS Meddelande, 7, 1 - 34.

Anderson, S. and Ingram, D. (2001). Drinking and Driving: Prevalence, decision-making and attitudes. NFO System Three Social Research. Development Department Research Programme: Research Findings No. 128. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.

Arnett, J. (1992). Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Developmental Review, 12, 339-373

Atzwanger, K (1995) Biological Aspects of Aggressive Driving Behavior. Paper presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Conference, Santa Barbara, June 1995

Baker, S., O'Neill, B., Ginsburg, M. J. and Li, G. (1992) The Injury Fact Book . New York: Oxford University Press.

Barkow, J., Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. 1992. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture . NY: Oxford University Press.

Björkqvist, K. (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: A review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30, 177-188.

Blum, D. (1997) Sex on the Brain: The Biological Differences between Men and Women. Deborah, New York: Viking Press.

Bogaert, A. F., and Fisher, W. A. (1995). Predictors of university men's number of sexual partners. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 119-130.

Caetano, R., & Clark, C. L. (2000). Hispanics, Blacks and Whites driving under the influence of alcohol: Results from the 1995 National Alcohol Survey. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 57 - 64.

Chipman, M. L., MacGregor, C. G., Smiley, A. M., and Lee-Gosselin, M. (1992). Time vs. distance as measures of exposure in driving surveys. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 24:6, 679 - 684. Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (1987). From evolution to behavior: Evolutionary psychology as the missing link. In J. Dupre (Ed.), Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Crick, N.R., & Grotpeter, J.K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710-722.

Dabbs, J. M., Ruback, R. B., Frady, R. L., Hopper, C. H., and Sgoutas, D. (1988). Saliva testosterone and criminal violence among women. Personality and Individual Differences, 9:2, 269-275

Dabbs, J. M., and Morris, R. (1990). Testosterone, social class, and antisocial behavior in a sample of 4,462 men. Psychological Science, 1, 209-211.

Daitzman, R., Zuckerman, M., Sammelwitz, P., and Ganjam, V. (1978). Sensation seeking and gonadal hormones. Journal of Biosocial Science, 10, 401-408.

Daitzman, R., and Zuckerman, M. (1980). Disinhibitory sensation seeking, personality and gonadal hormones. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 103-110.

Deery, H. A., and Fildes, B. N. (1999). Young novice driver subtypes: Relationship to high risk behavior, traffic accident record, and simulator driving performance. Human Factors, 41, 628-643.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Filetti, L. B., Dahlen, E. R., and Oetting, E. R. (2003). Anger, aggression, risky behavior, and crash-related outcomes in three groups of drivers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 333-349.

Dobson, A., Brown, W., Ball,J. and NcFadden, M. (1999) Women drivers' sociographic characteristics and accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31, 525-535.

Elander, J., West, R., and French, D. (1993). Behavioural Correlates: Individual Differences in Road-Traffic Crash Risk: An Examination of Methods and Findings. Psychological Bulletin, 113:2, 279 - 294.

Evans, L. (1991) Traffic Safety and the Driver. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold.

Evans, L. and Wasielewski, P. (1983). Risky driving related to driver and vehicle characteristics. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 15, 121-136.

French, D., West, R., Elander, J. and Wilding, J. M. (1993). Decision-making style, driving style and self-reported involvement in road traffic accidents. Ergonomics, 36:6, 627-644.

Fromme, K., D'Amico, E. J., and Katz, E. C. (1999). Intoxicated sexual risk taking: An expectancy or cognitive impairment explanation. Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 60, 54-63.

Furnham, A., and Saipe, J. (1993). Personality correlates of convicted drivers. Personality and Individual Differences,14:2, 329 - 336.

Gerra, G., Avanzini, P., Zaimovic, A., Sartori, R., Bocchi, C., Timpano, M., Zambelli, U., Delsignore, R., Gardini, F., Talarico, E., and Brambilla, F. (1999). Neurotransmitters, neuroendocrine correlates of sensation seeking temperament in normal humans. Neuropsychobiology, 39, 207-213.

Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Timpano, M., Zambelli, U., Delsignore, R., and Brambilla, F. (2000). Neuroendocrine correlates of temperamental traits in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 479-496.

Home Office (2004) Crime in England and Wales, 2001-2002.

Ingram, D., Lancaster, B. and Hope, S. (2001). Recreational Drugs and Driving. Prevalence Survey. System Three Social Research. Development Department Research Programme: Research Findings No. 102. Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2001) Status Report, 36:10. Jonah, B. A. (1990). Age differences in risky driving. Health Education Research, 5:2, 139-149.

Kenrick, D. T. and Luce, C. L. (2004) The Functional Mind: Readings in Evolutionary Psychology, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Kimura, D. (1999) Sex and Cognition. Michigan: MIT Press.

Lajunen, T. and Parker, D. (2001). Are aggressive people aggressive drivers?: A study of the relationship between self-reported general aggressiveness, driver anger and aggressive driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, 243-255

Lancaster, R., and Ward, R. (2001). Management of Work-related Road Safety. Research Report. HSE Contract Research Report: HSE Books.

Lancaster, R., and Ward, R. (2002). The Contribution of Individual Factors to Driving Behaviour: Implications for managing work-related road safety. Research Report. HSE Contract Research Report: HSE Books.

Lawton, R., Parker D., Stradling, S.G., and Manstead, A. (1997). Predicting road traffic accidents: The role of social deviance and violations. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 249 - 262.

Marsh P. and Campbell, A. (Eds.) (1982) Aggression and Violence. Oxford: Blackwell.

Marsh, P. and Collett. P. (1986) Driving Passion: The psychology of the car>. London: Cape

Maxim, P. S. and Keane, C. (1992). Gender, age, and risk of violent death in Canada. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 29, 329-345.

Maycock, J. Lockwood, C. R. and Lester, J. F. (1991). The Accident Liability of Car Drivers (Rep. No. 315). UK, Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

Mayhew, D. R. Ferguson, S. A., Desmond, K. J. and Simpson, H. M. (2003) Trends in fatal crashes involving female drivers, 1975-1998. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35:3, 407-415.

McCourt, W. F., Gurrera, R. J., and Cutter, H. S. (1993). Sensation seeking and novelty seeking: Are they the same? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 181, 309-312.

McKenna, F. P. (1993) It won't happen to me: Unrealistic optimism and the illusion of control. British Journal of Psychology, 84:1, 39-50.

McKenna, F. P, Waylen, A. E. and Burkes, M. E. (1998) Male and female drivers: How different are they? UK, Basingstoke: AA Foundation for Road Safety.

Meadows, M. L. (1994). Psychological correlates of road crash types. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Manchester.

Meadows, M. L. and Stradling, S. G. (1996). Violation and thrill in predicting types of road traffic crashes. International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, May, Valencia, Spain.

Michiels, W. and Schneider, P. (1984) Traffic offences: Another approach to description and prediction. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 16, 223-238.

Mizell, L. (1997). Aggressive driving. Washington, D.C.: American Automobile Association Foundation for Traffic Safety.

Netter, P., Henning, J., and Roed, I. S. (1996). Serotonin and dopamine as mediators of sensation seeking behavior. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 155-165.

NHTSA. (1995). Understanding Youthful Risk-Taking and Driving

. Interim Report. COMSIS Corporation.

Norris, F. H., Matthews, B. A., and Riad, J. K. (2000). Characterological, situational, and behavioural risk factors for motor vehicle accidents: A prospective examination. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 32, 505 - 515.

Novaco, R. (1991). Aggression on roadways. In Baenninger, R. (Ed.). Targets of Violence and Aggression. North Holland: Elsevier.

Oetting, E. R., Deffenbacher, J. L., and Donnermeyer, J. F. (1998). Primary socialization theory. The role played by personality traits in the etiology of drug use and deviance II. Substance Use and Misuse, 33, 1337-1366.

Paquette, J. and Underwood, M. (1999). Gender differences in young adolescents' experiences of peer victimization: Social and physical aggression. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 242-265.

Parker, D., Reason, J. T., Manstead, A. S. R. and Stradling, S. (1995). Driving errors, driving violations and accident involvement. Ergonomics, 38, 1036-1048.

Parker, D., West, R., Stradling, S., and Manstead, A. (1995). Behavioural characteristics and involvement in different types of traffic accident. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27:4, 571 - 581.

Parker, D and Stradling, S.G. (1998). Influencing driver attitudes and behaviour. Report to Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions.

Parry, M. H., (1968) Aggression on the road: A pilot study of behaviour in the driving situation, London: Tavistock.

Pyszczynski, T. L. (2002) Gender differences in the willingness to engage in risky behavior: A terror management perspective. Death Studies, 26, 117-142.

Reason, J. T., Manstead, A. S. R., Stradling, S. G., Baxter, J. S. and Campbell, K. (1990). Errors and violations on the road: A real distinction? Ergonomics, 33, 1315-1332.

Ridley, M. (1999). Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. London: Fourth Estate.

Rosenblitt, J. C., Soler, H., Johnson, S. E. and Quadagno, D. M. (2001) Sensation seeking and hormones in men and women: Exploring the link, Hormones and Behaviour, 40, 396-402.

Runyan, C. W., and Gerkenm E. A. (1991) Injuried. In W. Hendee (Ed) The Health of Adolescents. 302-333. San Francisco: Josey-Bass.

Sapolsky, R. M. (1999) The Trouble with Testosterone: The Trouble with Testosterone: And Other Essays on the Biology of the Human Predicament. New York: Scribner.

Shinar, D., Schechtman, E., and Compton, R. (2001). Self-reports of safe driving behaviours in relationship to sex, age, education and income in the US driving population. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 33, 243 - 255.

Simon, R. J. and Landis, J. (1991) The Crimes Women Commit: The Punishments They Receive. Lexington: Lexington Books.

Storie, V. J. (1977). Male and Female Car drivers: Differences observed in accidents (Rep. No. 761). UK, England: Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

Stradling, S. G. and Meadows, L. M. (1999) Highway code and aggressive violations in UK drivers. Paper presented to the Aggressive Diving Issues Conference, Ontario Ministry for Transportation, Toronto.

Stradling, S. (2000). Drivers who Speed. Impact, 9:2, 30 - 41.

Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden. (1987): Strassenverkehrsunfalle 1986, Fachserie 8, Reihe 3.3. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

Trankle, U., Gelau, C. and Metker, T. (1990). Risk perception and age-specific accidents of young drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 22:2, 119 - 125.

Wagner, M. K. (2001). Behavioral characteristics related to substance abuse and risk-taking, sensation- seeking, anxiety sensitivity and self-reinforcement. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 115-120.

Waller, P. F., Elliot, M. R., Shope, J. T., Raghunathan, T. E, and Little, R. J. A. (2001). Changes in young adults offense and crash patterns over time. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 33, 117 - 128.

Wang, S., Mason, J., Charney, D., Yehuda, R., Sherry, R., and Southwick, S. (1997). Relationships between hormonal profile and novelty seeking in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 145-151.

Wasielewski, P. (1984). Speed as a measure of driver risk: Observed speeds versus driver and vehicle characteristics. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 16, 89-103.

Waxweiler, R. J., Harel, Y. and Carroll, P. W. (1993). Measuring adolescent behaviours related to unintentional injuries. Public Health Reports, 108, 11-14.

Waylen, A. and McKenna, F. (2002) Cradle Attitudes - Grave Consequences. The development of gender differences in risky attitudes and behaviour in road use. UK, Basingstoke: AA Foundation for Road Safety.

West R., Elander, J. and French, D. (1993) Mild social deviance, type-A personality and decision making style as predictors of self-reported driving style and traffic accident risk. British Journal of Psychology, 84, 207-219.

West, R. (1993). Accident Script Analysis: Parts 1 and 2. Report to Department of Transport: Contract No. N06100. London: Department of Transport.

World Health Organisation (1999) Injury: A Leading Cause of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO Report.

World Health Organisation (2002) Gender and Road Traffic Injuries. WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health. Geneva.

Yagil, D (1998) Gender and age-related differences in attitudes toward traffic laws and traffic violations. Transportation Research, Part F: 1, 123-135.

Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation Seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zuckerman, M. (1996). The psychobiological model for impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: A comparative approach. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 125-129.

Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S., and Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age and sex comparisons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 139-149.

Prepared by Peter Marsh – August 2004